When the emperor suspected that there was … If not for his adoption, he probably would have become triumvir monetalis, a highly regarded post involving token administration of the state mint; after that, he could have served as tribune with a legion, becoming the legion's nominal second-in-command. The emperor gave the keynote to his life in the last word that he uttered when the tribune of the night-watch came to ask the password – 'aequanimitas' (equanimity). “My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions and loyal servant to the TRUE emperor, Marcus Aurelius. [274] In one speech, Marcus himself reminded the Senate that the imperial palace where he lived was not truly his possession but theirs. Topics. His son Commodus became emperor and soon ended the northern military efforts. In the East, the Roman Empire fought successfully with a revitalized Parthian Empire and the rebel Kingdom of Armenia. [174] Lucius Volusius Maecianus, Marcus's former tutor, had been prefectural governor of Egypt at Marcus's accession. [150] Thus, although the senate planned to confirm Marcus alone, he refused to take office unless Lucius received equal powers. [106] Fronto replied that he was surprised to discover Marcus counted Atticus as a friend (perhaps Atticus was not yet Marcus's tutor), and allowed that Marcus might be correct,[107] but nonetheless affirmed his intent to win the case by any means necessary: '[T]he charges are frightful and must be spoken of as frightful. like unto them are the children of men. [103] Marcus asks that Fronto's pain be inflicted on himself, 'of my own accord with every kind of discomfort'. [242] A new king was installed: a Roman senator of consular rank and Arsacid descent, Gaius Julius Sohaemus. The transition was smooth as far as Marcus was concerned; already possessing the essential constitutional powers, he stepped automatically into the role of full emperor (and his name henceforth was Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus). Marcus Aurelius. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [68] He was made consul for 140 with Antoninus as his colleague, and was appointed as a seviri, one of the knights' six commanders, at the order's annual parade on 15 July 139. Marcus and Verus fought the Germans off with success, but in 169 Verus died suddenly, and doubtless naturally, of a stroke. [162] If his funeral followed those of his predecessors, his body would have been incinerated on a pyre at the Campus Martius, and his spirit would have been seen as ascending to the gods' home in the heavens. [94][note 6] He did not care much for Atticus, though Marcus was eventually to put the pair on speaking terms. together with the preliminary discourse of the learned Gataker” [53] After a brief stationing on the Danube frontier, Aelius returned to Rome to make an address to the Senate on the first day of 138. Sister of Trajan's father: Giacosa (1977), p. 7. "[292], Michael Grant, in The Climax of Rome, writes of Commodus:[293], The youth turned out to be very erratic, or at least so anti-traditional that disaster was inevitable. [194] The governor of Cappadocia, the frontline in all Armenian conflicts, was Marcus Sedatius Severianus, a Gaul with much experience in military matters. [2] The later biographies and the biographies of subordinate emperors and usurpers are unreliable, but the earlier biographies, derived primarily from now-lost earlier sources (Marius Maximus or Ignotus), are much more accurate. [151] The senate accepted, granting Lucius the imperium, the tribunician power, and the name Augustus. It was first published in 1558 in Zurich by Wilhelm Xylander (ne Holzmann), from a manuscript reportedly lost shortly afterwards. Italics indicates a junior co-emperor, while underlining indicates a usurper. Marcus goes on to request the senate desist from earlier courses of Christian persecution by Rome.[302]. Marcus thus was marked out as a future joint emperor at the age of just under 17, though, as it turned out, he was not to succeed until his 40th year. Barnes, 'Legislation against the Christians'. Some Germanic tribes who settled in Ravenna revolted and managed to seize possession of the city. Maximus … [123] The first mention of Domitia in Marcus's letters reveals her as a sickly infant. Suetonius a possible lover of Sabina: One interpretation of, Lover of Hadrian: Lambert (1984), p. 99 and. [48] Alexander's influence – an emphasis on matter over style and careful wording, with the occasional Homeric quotation – has been detected in Marcus's Meditations. [191], On his deathbed, Antoninus spoke of nothing but the state and the foreign kings who had wronged him. Commodus then strangles his father, makes himself emperor anyway, and tries to have Maximus murdered, setting up the plot for the rest of the film. After his death the empire quickly descended into civil war. Here is somewhere in the wintry Balkan plains—a long way from Rome—and the question is asked by the emperor Marcus Aurelius of his general Maximus. Casaubon v. 8.16, uploaded to www.philaletheians.co.uk, 14 July 2013 Page 1 of 128 The meditations of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Originally translated by Meric Casaubon About this edition Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus was Emperor of Rome from 161 to his death, the last of the “Five Good Emperors.” He was nephew, son-in-law, and adoptive son of Antonius Pius. He was made consul soon after. Unlike some of his predecessors, Marcus chose not to adopt an heir. However, although he was granted the name Augustus and the title imperator , and was elected Pontifex Maximus , Marcus appears to have taken these positions with some hesitation, having to be compelled to do so. [69] Marcus would later caution himself against taking the name too seriously: 'See that you do not turn into a Caesar; do not be dipped into the purple dye – for that can happen'. [22] Through his grandmother Rupilia, Marcus was a member of the Nerva-Antonine dynasty; the emperor Trajan's sororal niece Salonia Matidia was the mother of Rupilia and her half-sister, Hadrian's wife Sabina. [253] Lucius took the title Parthicus Maximus, and he and Marcus were hailed as imperatores again, earning the title 'imp. [164] (Marcus had little need of his wife's fortune. In 164, a new capital, Kaine Polis ('New City'), replaced Artaxata. Poorly compiled: e.g. He was too anxious to relax. tags: opinions, philosophy. Join Facebook to connect with Marcus Maximus Aurelius and others you may know. It may have continued into the reign of Commodus. Marcus Aurelius - Marcus Aurelius - The Meditations: A more intimate contact with the thoughts pursued by Marcus during the troubling involvements of his reign, though not what would have been historically most valuable, his day-to-day political thoughts, can be acquired by reading the Meditations. Lucius, who had just come to Rome, asked the Emperor, whom he met on his way, where he was going to and on what errand, and Marcus answered, ' it is good even for an old man to learn; I am now on my way to Sextus the philosopher to learn what I do not yet know.' Únete a Facebook para conectar con Marcus Aurelius Maximus y otras personas que quizá conozcas. For his successes, Lucius was awarded the title Parthicus Maximus, whilst both he and Marcus were saluted once more as Imperatores (the reality was that most of the fighting was done through their generals). Faustina's betrothal to Ceionia's brother Lucius Commodus would also have to be annulled. Although educated in Rome, in his Meditations, Marcus would write his inmost thoughts in Greek. [9], Marcus was born in Rome on 26 April 121. For 25 years, I have conquered, spilt blood, expanded the empire. Excuses were sought, or invented: the official version had it that the Seleucids broke faith first. Lucius had a markedly different personality from Marcus: he enjoyed sports of all kinds, but especially hunting and wrestling; he took obvious pleasure in the circus games and gladiatorial fights. My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius. [3] For Marcus's life and rule, the biographies of Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, and Lucius are largely reliable, but those of Aelius Verus and Avidius Cassius are not. Birley, 'Hadrian to the Antonines', p. 156. One notorious case brought him into conflict with Atticus. Maximus "the Spaniard" Decimus Meridius (144-192) was the commander of the Armies of the North and the Felix Legions under the Roman Empire. Henceforth, it was in philosophy that Marcus was to find his chief intellectual interest as well as his spiritual nourishment. His master, he writes to Fronto, was an unpleasant blowhard, and had made 'a hit at' him: 'It is easy to sit yawning next to a judge, he says, but to be a judge is noble work'. Husband of Ceionia Fabia: Levick (2014), p. 164. Marcus Aurelius Quotes - BrainyQuote The happiness of your life depends upon the quality of your thoughts: therefore, guard accordingly, and take care that you entertain no notions unsuitable to virtue … [236] He only accompanied the group as far as Brundisium, where they boarded a ship for the east. This was not a new thing, but this time the numbers of settlers required the creation of two new frontier provinces on the left shore of the Danube, Sarmatia and Marcomannia, including today's Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. In 161 Syria was invaded by the Parthians, a major power to the east. It 'affected his health adversely', his biographer writes, to have devoted so much effort to his studies. Although Marcus disliked the Christians, there was no systematic persecution of them during his reign. (His adoptive brother, nearly 10 years his junior, was brought into official prominence in due time.) He served as Roman consul in 140, 145, and 161. When he criticized the insincerity of conventional language, Fronto took to defend it. However, it was also a 'harbinger of something much more ominous'. Ctesiphon was taken and its royal palace set to flame. [276][277][278] In addition to Republican-era Roman glasswares found at Guangzhou along the South China Sea,[279] Roman golden medallions made during the reign of Antoninus and perhaps even Marcus have been found at Óc Eo, Vietnam, then part of the Kingdom of Funan near the Chinese province of Jiaozhi (in northern Vietnam). You have to believe in yourself when no one else does - that makes you a winner right there. [129] Faustina probably had another daughter in 151, but the child, Annia Galeria Aurelia Faustina, might not have been born until 153. [125], In 149, Faustina gave birth again, to twin sons. [263], Experienced governors had been replaced by friends and relatives of the imperial family. Marcus and Lucius gave the crisis their personal attention. Early life and … [115], Apollonius may have introduced Marcus to Stoic philosophy, but Quintus Junius Rusticus would have the strongest influence on the boy. The Meditations is divided into 12 books that chronicle different periods of Marcus' life. [57] Marcus became M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, and Lucius became L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus. He led a Twelve Year Campaign in Germania, and his legions there were commanded by the Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius.He was murdered by his son, Commodus, because Marcus had instead appointed Maximus to be his successor. The greatest general of Rome during the 2nd century AD, he served loyally under Emperor Marcus Aurelius during his campaign against the Germanic tribes at Vindobona (Vienna, Austria).

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